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美网友热议东南亚的华人移民历程

2015-04-08 15:13 我要评论(0)

关键词:东南亚 移民 历程 华人 网友

核心提示:东南亚移民来自哪里?他们怎么去的?为什么去?去了多少,他们的人数是怎么随时间变化的?想必这些移民的大多数是中国汉族,但请澄清一下是否事实并非如此。

Where in South East Asia did they emigrate? How did they get there? Why did they go? How many went and how have their numbers changed over time? Presumably most of those emigrants would have been Han Chinese, but please clarify if that is not the case.

 

东南亚移民来自哪里?他们怎么去的?为什么去?去了多少,他们的人数是怎么随时间变化的?想必这些移民的大多数是中国汉族,但请澄清一下是否事实并非如此。

以下是美国网友评论:

★I'm neither a historian nor a specialist on ethnic Chinese diaspora, but i'm Southeast Asian Chinese myself (actually, i prefer to say Chinese Southeast Asian, but this sounds slightly awkward to my ears), and currently working on a Masters thesis project that happens to concern the Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore.

The questions you're asking are very broad, and i'm sure others can do a better job than me of answering them, but here are some quick and easy answers i can give:

我既不是历史学家也不是中国移民专家,但我自己是东南亚华人(实际上我更倾向于称自己是东南亚华裔,但这么说的话听起来似乎有点尴尬),目前正在写一篇关于马来西亚和新加坡华人的硕士论文。

你问的这个问题很宽泛,我相信其他人可以比我回答的更好,但我能给出一些快速简单的答案:

The Chinese arrived in SEAsia as a result of junk trade (by which i'm sure you know i mean trade on junks, not trade of junk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junk_%28ship%29 ), originating primarily in the provinces of Fujien and Guangdong, and encouraged by European colonial rule. By the 16th century they had established permanent settlements in various parts of SEAsia. The largest numbers settled in Thailand, Malaya, and Java, although it should be said that they are represented in most other areas in the region as well, including the Philippines, Borneo, Vietnam, and of course, Singapore, where they form a large majority of the population today.

It's hard to say how many there were/are, because it's hard to define "Chinese". Prior to the 20th century there was a tendency amongst them to assimilate with the locals. If we take self-identification as a criteria, by around 1959 there were about 10 million of them in the region. It should also be said that by the 1950s mass migration from China had basically ended, and most growth following arose from local births.

华人是通过被欧洲殖民统治所鼓励的海洋贸易到达东南亚(我相信你应该知道我指的是由中国式平底帆船带来的贸易,而不是破烂垃圾贸易http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junk_%28ship%29),主要是来自福建和广东。到了16世纪已经在东南亚大部分地区建立了永久定居点。其中相当部分人定居在泰国,马来亚和爪哇,但应该说该地区很多其他地方同样具有代表性,包括菲律宾,婆罗洲,越南,当然还有新加坡,至今他们在哪里形成绝大部分人口。

但很难说他们有多少人,因为很难对"华人"定义。20世纪之前他们有过同化当地人的倾向。如果我们以自我认同为标准,1959年大概有1000万人。同时应该注意的是到1950年为止,来自中国的大规模迁移已经结束,大部分增长来自本土出生。

I'm taking all of this from Skinner's 1959 article, "Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia", which i just happen to be reading now, but there are numerous other sources which i don't have handy at the moment, unfortunately.

http://ann.sagepub.com/content/321/1/136.short

以上都是原引自Skinner1959年的文章《东南亚海外华侨》,我只是碰巧读到了,但不幸的是还有大量其他资源没有派上用场。

http://ann.sagepub.com/content/321/1/136.short

EDIT: Spelling

EDIT 2: It just occurred to me to also point out that the question of how many ethnic Chinese there are in Southeast Asia today is complicated by more recent immigration from China. In Singapore, this has actually been actively encouraged by the government in recent years, and their numbers have gotten quite substantial. Many have gained permanent residency status, or even citizenship. Should these be considered "ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia", then? Culturally, they can be quite different, and Chinese Singaporeans whose forebears arrived earlier in the 20th century generally don't identify with them. I don't have any references for this, unfortunately, but you can check out this article in the New York Times, which is quite interesting in any case.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/27/world/asia/in-singapore-vitriol-against-newcomers-from-mainland-china.html?pagewanted=all

同时我想指出的是最近这段时间中国移民使今天的东南亚华人数量变得更复杂。在新加坡,政府近几年实际上积极鼓励这种行为(最近这段时间中国移民),人数已经相当可观。很多人已经获得永久居民身份,甚至获得国籍。那么这些人也可以认作是"东南亚华人"么?文化上,他们是完全不同的,(尤其是对)祖先在20世纪早期移民过来的一代新加坡华裔(来说),并不认同他们。遗憾的是我没有相关论文(证明这个观点),但你可以在《纽约时报》上查到相关文章,上面的很多文章都很有趣。http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/27/world/asia/in-singapore-vitriol-against-newcomers-from-mainland-china.html?pagewanted=all

I can't speak to the specific communities, that is, I cannot tell you any sort of percentage breakdown by chronology. However, it is important to remember that Chinese had been a major presence in the Indian Ocean since at least the Song Dynasty--the stereotype of China being "closed off" to foreigners is more or less a complete fiction invented by the European colonialists. A good illustration of this is found in the Portuguese port archives for Malacca, which recorded the origins of the various ships who docked there and passed through. The great majority, of course, were local, but of those that were not local the only origin point that can't be slotted into "other" was China, which accounted for something like 25% of all traffic (I don't have the source in front of me). So Chinese ships under Chinese merchants were a major part of the picture of modern commerce in the Indian Ocean.

我没法说(华人)社区的具体(情况),就是说,我没法提供具体百分比统计数据。然而,要记得有一点很重要,中国人在印度洋的存在举足轻重,至少从宋代起(就是这样)——当时中国针对外国人的的"锁国"政策或多或少受到欧洲殖民者编造的。一个很好的例子就在是在葡萄牙的马六甲港口档案中发现的,该档案记录了大量停靠或通过(马六甲港口的)船只的来源。当然大部分是当地(船只),但其中有一部分并不是当地的并且其来源无法跟踪被认为是"其他"的(船只)就是中国的,记录显示这部分大约占了总量的25%左右的样子(我手边没有相应的资料来源)。中国商人控制的中国船只是印度洋现代商业的重要组成部分。

How does this translate to actual movement of people? There are a variety of methods. The simplest is diplomatic exchange: it was not uncommon for Chinese princesses to be married to nearby rulers. This would involve a rather significant number of people, as servants, handmaidens, lesser relatives, and a varied crowd of hanger-ons would accompany them. More significant would be the trade diaspora (although I sense this term is being replaced by ideas of "networks and circulation societies"), which would be in a feedback loop with those in the diplomatic exchange. Even today someone wanting to conduct long distance trade will need a "man on the spot", and this was only more true before modern communication methods. This may start as only a few families, but it would blossom as hanger-ons, craftsmen, clerks, minor associates and the various other people required to run a trade post gather to the settlement. This may then act as a magnate that attracts further migration from people who decide there is opportunity involved in the trade. perhaps your cousin is doing well in Majapahit and so you decide you can do better there than in Fuzhou. This is an age old process, visible the world over and still ongoing to this day.

这是怎么转变为实际的人口运动的呢?有很多说法。最简单的是外交往来:中国公主嫁给附近统治者(的现象)并不罕见。这可能会涉及到相当大的一部分人口,仆从,婢女,亲戚和一大群随从都会一起随嫁。更大多数的是因贸易形成的散居(虽然我认为"散居"这个词应该被替换成"互相联系并且内部繁衍的社会群"),他们和因外交形成的(上层)华侨形成了一个有反馈作用的圈子。即使今天一些人想要做长途贸易依然需要一个"熟悉情况的人",这在现代交流(流行)之前是唯一更真实可行的方式。可能最初开始于几个家族,但会随着随从,工匠,职员,低级人员和运行一个贸易货栈所需各式人员,聚居到殖民地。随后可能会作为巨头,从而更进一步吸引认准贸易商机的移民。可能你的堂兄在满者伯夷做的不错所以你在这里会比福州做得好。这是老办法,世界通行并且现在依然行得通。

However, I believe the majority of overseas Chinese are descended from the waves of migration that have been set off by the various instabilities of the last few centuries, particularly the bloodshed and violence of the nineteenth century. Using the well established trade connections discussed above, refugees hoped to flee the violence that engulfed southern China by settling in SE Asia. Their relationship with the Chinese government and the non-Chinese locals both, particularly over the last century, has been rather complex, as you no doubt know.

然而,我相信形成移民浪潮的大部分华人侨居的原因是上几个世纪(中国)的动荡不安,特别是19世纪的流血与动乱。利用上面说的建立贸易联系,难民希望通过定居东南亚以逃避席卷中国南部的暴力灾难。毫无疑问,如你所知道的,他们与中国政府和当地的非华人的关系都相当复杂,尤其是近百年以来。

I am certain there is a good book covering this, but I am getting my information from Jacques Gernet's History of Chinese Civilization, Barnes and Parker Ships and the development of Maritime Technology in the Indian Ocean and Chadhury and Morineau Merchants, Companies and Trade.

我敢肯定有一本好书能涵盖这些情况,但我是从谢和耐①的《中国社会文明史》,Barnes和Parker②的《印度洋的船只和海运技术发展》以及Chadhury③和Morineau的《商人,公司,贸易》上读到的。

①度娘:谢和耐,外文名Jacques Gernet,法国20世纪下半叶著名的汉学家、历史学家、社会学家、法国金石和美文学科学院院士,法兰西学院名誉教授。baike.baidu.com/link

②《Ships and the development of Maritime Technology》原著作者David Parkin和Ruth Barnes,不是Parker,拼错。

③《Merchants, Companies and Trade》原著作者Sushil Chaudhury和Michel Morineau,不是Chadhury,拼错。

I'm not familiar with the intricacies of Chinese history, but I'll try to answer the question:

我不熟悉中国历史的复杂性,但我会试着回答这个问题:

*Where in South East Asia did they emigrate?

*他们移民去了哪里?

Chinese can be found all over South East Asia. There are communities in Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

华裔遍布东南亚。越南,泰国,缅甸,印度尼西亚以及马来西亚都有(华裔)社区。

*How did they get there? Why did they go? How many went and how have their numbers changed over time?

*他们怎么去的?为什么去?去了多少,他们的人数是怎么随时间变化的?

It really depends on the time and place. Beginning in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), for example, China established a tributary system in which Korea, Vietnam, and Burma acknowledged China's cultural supremacy. In return, the the Ming emperors allowed these states to trade in Chinese lands and recognized the legitimacy of their rulers.

这要看时间地点。比如从明朝(1368—1644)开始,中国在朝鲜半岛(北朝和南韩),越南以及缅甸建立的朝贡体系承认中国文化霸权。作为回报,明朝皇帝允许这些国家在中国土地上进行贸易,并承认(他们国家)统治者的合法性。

Besides trade, kingdoms such as Vietnam and Burma borrowed heavily from Chinese culture. In Vietnam, for example, the ruling dynasty imported the Chinese script and established a government modeled on neo-confucian principles so popular during the Ming period. Unsurprisingly, these rulers also encouraged Chinese traders to settled in their lands for economic and cultural reasons. Since Chinese merchants and sailors were familiar with Southeast Asia trade routes I believe they would have arrived to Vietnam by sea.

除了贸易,一些像越南以及缅甸的国家大量借鉴了中国文化。在越南,统治王朝引进中国的文字体系以新儒家原则建立政府在明朝时期非常多见。不出所料,这些统治者也鼓励中国商人以经济、文化缘由在当地安家落户。由于中国商人和水手对东南亚贸易航线较为熟悉,我相信他们是通过水路到达越南的。

For centuries, Chinese merchants also settled the Southeast Asian islands to pursue trade opportunities. I remember reading that these communities became quite assimilated in the Muslim kingdoms of the region and served in prominent positions in their courts.

几个世纪以来,中国商人定居在东南亚土地上也为了追求商机。我记得我读到过这些社区在穆斯林王国地区融合的非常好,并在他们的朝廷里获得了显要的(政治)地位。

I also wouldn't be surprised if Chinese settled in Southeast Asia for political reasons. During the early Qing Dynasty (late 17th century), for example, many Ming loyalists (nobles) and other rebels fled by land into Burma, Vietnam and Korea rather than acknowledge the new Manchu emperor.

The 19th century probably saw the biggest wave of Chinese immigration to Southeast Asia, as well as to USA (gold rush) and Peru (guano mines). A majority of these immigrants were Cantonese. This was because Southern China suffered from widespread famine resulting from the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850s.

如果中国人是出于政治原因在东南亚安家立业我也不会感到惊讶。比如在清朝早期(17世纪后期),很多明朝拥护者(贵族)以及其他反叛人士通过陆地逃往缅甸,越南以及朝鲜半岛,而不是承认新的满族皇帝。

19世纪可能是中国人移民东南亚的高峰,还有去美国(淘金)和秘鲁(开采鸟粪石矿)的。这些移民大部分是广东人。这是因为19世纪50年代中国南部遭受了太平天国起义导致的广泛饥荒。

The several million Chinese that settled in Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Singapore would come to play a large part in those countries' mercantile communities.

数百万的华人在印度尼西亚,马来西亚,越南,新加坡安家落户,并在这些国家的商业社区发挥了很大作用。

The King of Siam (Thailand), also imported several hundred thousand Chinese laborers to help modernize the country.

暹罗王(泰国),同样引进了数十万中国劳工以实现本国现代化。

Sources: (admittedly, I'm the first five books I'm listing are from the bibliography of Benedict Anderson's book on nationalism, Imagined Communities. The Chinese diaspora plays a minor role in his argument)

Development of Labor Institutions in Thailand, p. 38

The Chinese in Philippine Life, 1850-1898

Chinese Society in Thailand

Battye, Noel A. 'The Military, Government and Society in Siam, 1868-1910.

Thongchai Winichakul. 'Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of Siam.

Jonathan Spence, The Search for Modern China

来源:(不可否认的,前五本书是来自本尼迪克.安德森①关于民族主义的作品《想像的共同体》的索引目录中。华人移民在他的论述中只占了小部分)

《泰国劳工制度发展》,p.38

《华人在菲律宾的生活》,1850—1898

《泰国华人社区》

巴提耶,尼奥尔A,《暹罗的军队,政府与社会》,1868—1910

彤差.温尼差卡②,《图汇暹罗:国家地缘机体的历史》

史景迁③,《追寻现代中国》

①度娘:Benedict Anderson,本尼迪克.安德森,爱尔兰人,著名东南亚研究学者,代表作《想象的共同体》baike.baidu.com/link。

②彤差.温尼差卡,原籍泰国,美国维斯康星大学麦迪逊分校历史学教授,美国亚洲研究协会(Association for Asian Studies,AAS)主席(2013,2014)sydney.edu.au/southeast-asia-centre/thai-studies-2014/speakers.shtml。

③度娘:史景迁,英文名Jonathan D. Spence,乔纳森.斯宾塞。美国著名中国史研究专家,汉学家,美国历史学会主席(2004—2005)baike.baidu.com/link。

-------------译者:mopetsun-审核者:龙腾翻译总管------------

I can tell you about Chinese in Indonesia.

The first time a Chinese ever came to Indonesia was Faxian, a Buddhist monk who stopped by Java island for five months along his way to India. He arrived at Tarumanagara Kingdom, at the time the only great kingdom in West Java.

我可以告诉你一些有关印尼华人的事情。

第一个到达印尼的中国人叫法显,一个佛教徒,在去印度的路上停留印尼爪哇岛5个月。他到达了帕迦鲁荣王国——当时是西爪哇岛上唯一的一个王国。

注:(中国东晋僧人、旅行家、翻译家。俗姓龚,平阳武阳(今山西襄垣)人。幼年出家为沙弥,20岁受戒。因慨律藏残缺,誓志寻求。公元399年和慧景等人从长安(今西安)出发,到天竺(古印度)求法,获《大涅槃经》、《摩诃僧祇律》、《萨婆多众律抄》、《杂阿毗昙心论》、《摩诃僧祇阿毗昙》等梵本。后到狮子国(今斯里兰卡)游历2年,又获《弥沙塞律》、《长阿含》、《杂阿含》及《杂藏》等梵本。后经耶婆提国(今印度尼西亚爪哇)回国,于公元412年抵青州长广郡牢山(今山东青岛崂山)。第二年到建康(今南京),在道场寺和佛陀跋陀罗译出《大般泥洹经》(6卷)、《摩诃僧祇律》、《杂藏经》和《杂阿毗昙心论》等。法显据旅途见闻撰成的《佛国记》(即《高僧法显传》)是研究当时佛教史及中国与印度、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔、斯里兰卡等国交通史的重要资料。from Britannica)

The second time was also a Buddhist monk, whom we call I-Ching (pinyin: Yijing, hanzi: 义净). Traveling by boat from Guangzhou, he arrived at Sriwijaya (present-day Palembang, Sumatra island) and proceeded to live there for six months. At 687, he returned to Sriwijaya and lived for two years before returning to Tang China (thanks to him we Indonesian got a great insights of their daily lives).

第二个来到印尼的中国人也是佛教徒,叫做"义净"。坐船从广州,到达苏门达腊岛的斯里维加亚(就是如今的巴邻旁市),居住了半年。公元687年,他又回到这里居住了两年,后来回到了大唐(对亏了他,我们印尼人才对当时中国人的日常生活有了很多了解)。

Because Sriwijaya was located in a very strategic position for trading, which was Malacca Strait, many foreign traders stopped by, but until long after Yijing came, Sriwijaya only saw Persian traders.

Chinese traders began coming around ninth century to trade porcelain, silk, tea leaves, and pottery utensils to be traded by spices and bird's nest. But at the time, only men came due to the danger of the journey. There are evidence found revealing few of these men came to stay in Sriwijaya and assimilited with local culture, marrying local women etc.

因为斯里维加亚处于一个非常重要的战略性贸易位置里——即马六甲海峡,所以是外国商人会在这里短暂逗留。义净抵达这里的很长时间后,波斯商人才抵达这里。中国商人大概在9世纪开始通过瓷器、丝绸、茶叶和陶器制品来交换香料和燕窝。但是,由于航行危险,只有男人到来。有证据表明,这些中国男性中很少有人很少有人融入当地文化或者娶当地的女人。

At 1293, Kublai Khan attacked Java. His troops, led by Ike Mese, arrived in java to avenge his messenger, Meng Chi, who was disgraced by Kertanegara, the king of Singosari at the time. Before they even had the chance to attack, Ike Mese met Raden Wijaya, who hoodwinked Ike Mese by pretending he wished to help Ike Mese, but in reality only wanted to use his troops to regain his throne. Raden Wijaya would become the first king of Majapahit whose territory would include all present-day Indonesia, Sungapore, Pahang, and Papua New Guinea. Believing Raden Wijaya, Ike Mese didn't prepare for a surprise attack commited by his 'ally', causing him to retreat with shame. In this war, thousands of Mongol soldiers were captured. Raden Wijaya let the soldiers who accepted his rules to stay in Majapahit, where they married local women and assimilated with local culture.

在1923,忽必烈攻击爪哇。他的军队由 亦黑迷失带领,到达了爪洼,为他的信使报仇。孟琪(信使),被葛达那加剌(新柯沙里 的最后一个国王)所羞辱。在他们有机会发动攻击前, 亦黑迷失和拉登甲(假装帮助亦黑迷失,但实际上是利用亦黑迷失的军队夺回王位)会面。拉登甲后来成为了满者伯夷(Majapahit)国王,他的疆域包括现在的印尼、新加坡、彭亨、巴布亚新几内亚。由于相信拉登甲,亦黑迷失没有想到会被他袭击,最后不得不蒙羞撤退。在这次战争中,成千上万的蒙古军士兵被俘。拉登甲让接受他统治的士兵居住在满者伯夷(Majapahit),溶入当地的文化并娶当地的女人。

注1:(拉登甲亮,满者伯夷国国王,可参见http://www.360doc.com/content/15/0110/09/20625606_439581387.shtml)

注2:(自唆都派赵玉出使爪哇以后,元朝又多次派出使臣:至元十七年十月,"遣使谕爪哇国";十八年十一月,"诏谕爪哇国主,使亲来觐"(诏使应即宣慰孟庆元等);二十三年七月,"遣必剌蛮等使爪哇"(并见《元史·世祖纪》)。爪哇也有使者前来,并曾进金佛塔(同上书至元十九年七月条)。但后来以右丞孟琪为诏使前往,却被爪哇国王黥面逐回,原因可能是胁迫其亲身入朝,激怒了声威正盛的葛达那加剌。参见http://wx.cclawnet.com/tongshi/13088.htm)

注3:(据《元史·亦黑迷失传》载:"亦黑迷失,畏吾儿人也。至元二年,入备宿卫。九年,奉世祖命使海外八罗孛国。十一年,偕其国人以珍宝奉表来朝,帝嘉之,赐金虎符。十二年,再使其国,与其国师以名药来献,赏赐甚厚。"参见http://www.douban.com/note/80753411/)

Admiral Zheng He came at 1405, bringing Islam as well as Chinese men who also stayed and assimilated, but until that time, no Chinese woman ever came to Indonesia. Several 'kampung Tionghoa' (Chinese communities) that existed up until eighteenth century consisted of the descendants of Chinese men and local women who married amongst themselves, creating what we playfully call hitachi (black Chinese), due to their darker skin than common Chinese. The only Chinese women ever came were royalties, princesses who were married to Javanese royalties at the time, but considering only royalty could marry royalty, it is highly unlikely these royal Chinese descendants still retained their Chinese culture. The kingdom of Demak, first Islamic kingdom in Java, was built by Raden Patah, whose mother was a Chinese royal.

郑和直到1405年才到来,带来了伊斯兰教和中国男人,其中部分居住了下来,直到那个时候,还没有中国女人到达印尼。几个华人区开始陆续出现,一直持续到18世纪,由中国男人和当地女人所生的后代组成,这些中国后代被我们戏称为"黑色中国人",因为他们的皮肤比一般中国人黑些。唯一来到这里的中国女人是嫁到爪洼的皇室成员和公主,但考虑到只有皇室才可以嫁给皇室,所以中国的皇室后代不太可能保留中国文化。拉登帕塔建立了爪哇的第一个伊斯兰王国——淡目国,而他的母亲是中国皇室成员。

Just a tidbit, we have a temple for Admiral Zheng He in Semarang (my city!) whom we call Dampo Awang. Even though Zheng He himself was muslim, many Buddhist come to this temple to pray. We also keep an anchor from his ship, whish locals believe can give them luck and blessing from the admiral himself.

VOC also has a finger in the pie. Due to the lack of workers, they imported Chinese workers especially for mining in Bangka Belitung area, who then married local women as well. These hitachi (black Chinese) descendants are now commonly known as cina benteng (I don't really like this term because it sounds derogatory...)

(Sad to say that most of pure second generation Chinese who came around 1930s strongly opposed against their descendants marrying these cina benteng, because they are "impure" in their eyes, including my father who thinks of them as 'Chinese traitor')

一个趣闻, 在我们三宝垄城,还有祭奠郑和的寺庙,我们称他为 Dampo Awang。虽然郑和是伊斯兰教徒,但是许多佛教徒来参拜。我们还保留有一个他的船锚,当地人称可以带来好运和幸福。荷兰东印度公司(VOC)同样有参与。由于缺少工人,他们引入了很多中国工人,特别是让他们在勿里洞岛(Bangka Belitung)矿区当矿工,他们也有和当地人通婚。他们的后代也是黑中国人,一般被称为支那朋登(我真的不喜欢这种称呼,因为听起来富有贬义)。

(很不幸,30年代来到印尼的大部分纯正的第二代中国移民拒绝他们的后代和 支那朋登通婚,因为在他们看来这些人不纯,包括我的父亲都认为他们是"中国的叛徒")。

注:(坦格朗有重要的印度尼西亞華人社群,當地華人許多都具有朋登華人(Cina Benteng)的血統,Benteng在印尼語意為「堡壘」,他們是十八、十九世紀時由荷蘭人帶來此地的滿族華工後代。他們與其他海外華人在文化上有些不同,大多數人不會說任何漢語方言,他們通常信仰道教並有著維持信仰的場所和社群中心。他們在種族上是混血的,但自我認同為華人(峇峇娘惹)。参见http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/坦格朗)

In 1740, though, VOC massacred more than 7,500 Chinese who rebelled due to their dictatorial rules, causing the indigenous Indonesians and Chinese traders alike living in poverty, you can read my previous comment about VOC's cruelty in East Indies here. This incident is known as 'Red Angke' since the blood of the beheaded Chinese people (men, women, old and young, all were massacred) reddened the Angke River in Batavia.

在1740年,尽管荷兰东印度公司杀死了大约7500名背叛了他的中国人,因为他们的独裁统治,导致土著印尼人和中国商人几乎生活在贫困当中,你可以看到我先前对于荷兰东印度公司手段残忍的评论。这次事情被称为Red Angke,因为被杀戮的中国人(男女老少,都被杀死了)他们的血液染红了印尼首都的Angke河。

Around early nineteenth century, Chinese women started journeying to Indonesia along with Chinese men, or to be exact ran away from their country due to Boxer and Taiping rebellion, and also the Opium War. These people started the 中华会 organization, who also built school for Chinese children.

When Japan attacked China and established the Manchukuo, a deluge of Chinese immigrants came to Indonesia (including my grandparents whose village was ravaged by the Japanese). These Chinese are now known as 'first generation' (my generation is the third generation), despite people already coming even before them, because this was the first time in Indonesia's history Chinese immigrants came in a very large number, even outnumbering the cina benteng population, bringing their family, wives, sons, and daughters. The estimated number is around 100,000 people to Batavia only (not mentioning Medan, whose Chinese now speaks Fujian dialect instead of Indonesian, or Singkawang in Borneo, whose Chinese speaks Hakka).

大概在19世纪早期,中国女人才开始和中国男人来到印尼,或者说是为了逃离太平运动和义和团而逃亡印尼,还有鸦片战争。他们建立了"中华会",开始为中国孩子们设立学校。当日本开始攻击中国,建立伪满洲国的时候,如洪水般的中国人涌入印尼(包括我的祖父母,他们的村镇被日本人毁了)。这些中国人现在被称为第一代移民(我是第三代)。尽管很早以前就有中国人到来,但这是中国人第一次大规模的进入印尼,甚至超过了支那朋登,包括他们的所有家人。据估记有10万人到达雅加达(更不用说棉兰,那里的中国人都说福建方言,还有婆罗洲的山口洋,那里的中国人都说客家话)。

Source:

Tionghoa Dalam Pusaran Politik

Hoakiau di Indonesia

Peranakan Tionghoa di Jawa

来源于:

中国人在印尼的政治暴动

印尼的中国华桥

爪洼当地的华人社团

(回楼上)

Interesting, thank you!

非常有趣,谢谢。

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["time"]=> int(1450946760) } [14]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297058) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(90) "清华博士:台湾是“杀出来的奴才,打出来的顺民,惯出来的孽种”" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297058.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1223/1450833056693.png" ["description"]=> string(297) "一直以来,中国政府奉行对台让利政策,对台湾的开放程度远远超过台湾对大陆的开放程度,就已在太阳花运动中被否定的“贸服协定”为例,对大陆的要求几乎全部是高于WTO中的规定,而对台湾却几乎全部是低于WTO的规定。" ["time"]=> int(1450833467) } [15]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297067) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(60) "金庸:揭中国人不擅长打仗为何却能赢的真相" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297067.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1223/1450834511242.jpg" ["description"]=> string(243) "现在许多西方学者都认为,地球就这样大了,无止境地追求、扩充,是不可能的,也是不可取的。今後只能接受中国的哲学,要平衡、要和谐,民族与民族之间要相互协作,避免战争。" ["time"]=> int(1450834575) } }

朱维群:达赖与暴力恐怖主义的关系能撇清吗

1习近平致电祝贺拜登当选美国总统
2澳总理:“我们不是美国的哈巴狗”!
3特朗普政府又开展清洗 基辛格等多人被撤职
4孟晚舟庭审日记 精心设计的逮捕计划"无人认
5美媒发布疫情下适合居住国家排行榜,中国排
6王毅谈钓鱼岛问题 向日方提出三点希望
7特朗普:认输很难 选举人团投拜登就离开白
8九寨沟迎来第一场冬雪
9日媒:在165个国家 中国北斗令美国GPS相形
10中国在继续抛售美国国债
11纽约扩大对特朗普的税收欺诈调查 伊万卡牵
12黎智英连线美军高官 担心拜登对华没有特朗
13曾求美制裁的特区反对派议员纷纷大转向!
14世卫:武汉华南海鲜市场可能只是一个扩散地
15"我为什么离开美国?" 中国留学生流露心声
16中国球迷到阿根廷驻华大使馆敬献哀思
17俄专家:美雇佣私人飞机监视中国周边
182020年最不安全密码出炉
19好消息!高原哨所氧气通到官兵床头
20美国空军46个款战机中只有2款战备达标
1习近平致电祝贺拜登当选美国总统
2中国官员日常在干的事 美国官员却拿了个大
3央视主播刘欣向拜登致贺词 网友:说得好
4澳总理:“我们不是美国的哈巴狗”!
5习近平:中方将积极考虑加入CPTPP协定
6特朗普G20再抨巴黎气候协定:它旨在杀死美
7拜登新的"国务卿",五年前从北京坐动车二等
8”美国回来了!”拜登第一批内阁高官任命首
9特朗普政府又开展清洗 基辛格等多人被撤职
10纽约女子被推下地铁站台 竟在车下奇迹生还
11美国FCC确认中兴通讯对美国构成国家安全威
12特朗普临时召开"最短记者会"只为宣布这件事
13孟晚舟庭审日记 精心设计的逮捕计划"无人认
14印度政客:印、巴、孟应合并为一个国家
15美媒:美国塑料垃圾泛滥危害全球
16震撼现场!炮兵实弹演练九炮齐发画面
17王毅:中日达成五点重要共识和六项具体成果
18还在玩火!居然让"西藏流亡政府"头目进白宫
19欧洲航天局:很高兴为嫦娥五号提供数据支持
20美媒发布疫情下适合居住国家排行榜,中国排
1美国总统大选最后一天 已投票选民人数近1亿
2奥巴马祝贺老搭档拜登当选 呼吁全国团结
3美国大选结果尚不明朗 全世界都在焦急等待
4大国崩塌前夜:美国最后的疯狂开始了!!
5拜登:当计票工作结束时 哈里斯和我将被宣
6金灿荣:拜登特朗普谁当选对中国更有利?
7美国大选结果由谁来“官宣”?
8毛骨悚然!女子打扫新家时发现隐藏密室
9美国曝光“抗美援朝”真实数据 令人震惊!
10李毅:中美关系的走向
11拜登上任后将用行政命令撤销一系列特朗普政
12贺锦丽:很多工作等着我们去做 让我们开始
13台退役上校李天铎:对岸若动手的两个征兆
14抗美援朝真正原因被曝光 让无数人无地自容
15华为芯片突传好消息 "中国芯"突破关键一步
16拜登竞选顾问:只要赢得270张选举人票即胜
17美国新副总统哈里斯家乡狂欢:印度的女儿!
18如果特朗普和拜登都不承认败选,会发生什么
19基辛格:朝鲜战争对中国而言不只是平局
20特朗普发声明:承诺"永不放弃战斗"