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历史上中国为什么没对外扩张?中国是帝国吗?

2015-03-13 20:26 我要评论(0)

关键词:中国 帝国 对外 历史

核心提示:不太懂中国的历史,除了大多数朝代在一统中国后几乎从不向外扩张, 比如印度, 太平洋诸岛和俄罗斯。 中国为什么不开疆扩土或影响外界呢?

★They did! China is so large and contains so many people because the rulers of the various kingdoms and empires spent centuries conquering it. The Roman Empire at it's largest extent encompassed about a million square miles. China is 3 million square miles.

You can see the growth of the chinese empire(s) here.

他们也扩张的! 中国那么大,那么多人口,就是因为各个王国和王朝的统治者们花了数个世纪的时间征服得来的。罗马帝国在最强盛时期囊括了近百万平方英里的土地。中国有3百万平方英里的土地。你可以在下面的链接里观看中华帝国的成长史。

★It is also instructive to look at the diversity of ethnicity that is present still in the modern territory of China. as seen in this map

在下面链接的地图里,你也可以获得有关中国现代版图上的族群多样性的有益资料。

★In addition there are different languages spoken in modern China as well. More Info Here.

除此之外1,在现代中国也存在着多种语言。下面链接可以找到更多资料。

★The truth is that the outsider's scope of understanding of the people and experience of China is often limited to Han Chinese. I don't know enough about archaic Chinese history to say anything about the diversity of cultures and polities that were lost in the expansion of the dominant Han culture, but those that remain can give you some idea about the territorial conquests achieved by China in the past. Were China really the model nation state for the principal of the self determination of nations, China's current territory would be much smaller.

事实的真相是外部对中国的了解经常局限于汉族。我对中国古代史了解不多,对于在强势的汉文化扩张过程中消失的诸多政权及文化没有发言权。但是,存留下来的那些会让你对中国过去的领土扩张有所了解。中国要真是一个奉行民族自决的模范国家,中国现在的版图要小得多。

★The modern border of China largely comes from the Qing (Manchus) conquest. I think one must have a proper understanding of the term "Chinese" before understanding this question.

The "Chinese (Chunghwa) Nation" as people now understands it, is a relative new concept. The root was primitively developed in the early days of Qing Dynasty as an anti-Mancurian rally cry. It evolved during the Western imperialism period of China to form "five races under one union", another nationalistic rally cry espoused by many revolutionaries, most famously Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. The concept evolved to encompass the various ethinicities (officially 56 of them) in the modern border of China.

Before the concept of Chinese nation, there really wasn't a China as people would recognize nowadays. The dominant race, Han, grew from the various tribal lords around the Yellow River valley who organized themselves together. In fact, that's considered the traditional area of Han people, earning it the name of "Central Plains" (often translated as Central China).

So a more specific question would therefore be: Did Han Chinese expand their borders? Yes, they absolutely did. Once united by a single ruler, they expanded out of the central plains into other area during the Han (namesake of the race) Dynasty. The current southeastern area of China was the traditional land of the Minyue tribes, who were conquered during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. The also expanded toward south, defeating the Nanyue tribes, southwest (to what is present day Yunnan), by defeating the Dian tribes. To the west, the expanded into the various oasis town over the traditional silk road trade routes. Since Han people had a very dominant culture, once they expanded into an area they cause the local to sinicize, which is why people do not see much difference between the traditionally non-Han areas and central plains.

I'm skipping A LOT of history here, but When Manchus conquered the Han rulers of Ming dynasty to form Qing Dynasty, they also brought the more peripherals areas of China into the imperial fold. Tibet, Manchuria, East Turkestan, Taiwan, etc were added into the same political entity that ruled over Han people.

So in short, Chinese people absolutely did expand. The modern border of China was a result of Manchurian expansion, and the more traditional area of China (ie China proper) was the result of Han Dynasty expansion.

中国现在的边界大多要归功于清朝(满洲人)的占领。我认为要理解这个问题先得正确理解"中国"这个词。现在人理解的"中华民族"是一个相当新的概念。它最初是由清朝初期的反清同盟提出的。在后来的西方帝国主义入侵中国期间,它演化成"五族共和",另一个许多革命者--最著名的是孙逸仙医生--拥护的口号。现在,它又演化成包含中国版图上的各个民族(官方56个)。在中华民族这个概念之前,并不存在一个如现在人们所认可的中国。主流民族"汉族"是由黄河流域的各个部落头领联合起来逐渐发展壮大起来的。事实上,那才是汉人的传统地盘,名叫中原(通常翻译成Central China)。所以,更确切的问题应该是:汉人是否扩张领土?是的,他们绝对扩张。在汉(与族同名)朝,一旦统一在一个君主旗下,他们就从中原扩张到其它地区。现在的东南部原是闽越故土,在汉代东南扩张中被占领。他们也向南扩张,征服南越部落;向西南(现在的云南),征服滇地部落;向西,深入到传统丝绸之路上的各个绿洲城邦。

由于汉人的强势文化,他们扩张到哪里就汉化哪里。这就是为什么人们看不到传统上的非汉地区与中原地区有多大区别的原因。

我在这里跳过了好多历史史实。当满人打败明朝的汉人君主建立清朝时,他们也把中国周边地区带入了帝国版图。西藏、满洲、新疆,台湾等地区也被这个统治着汉人的政权纳入囊中。

总之,简而言之,中国人是绝对搞扩张的。中国现代边界是满人扩张的结果,而中国更传统上的地区(汉地)则是汉朝扩张的结果。

(回楼上)

★Great answer, and very comprehensive. The most expansionist dynasties of China were the Han, Tang, and Qing.* *Excluding the Yuan. In that case, expansion by the Mongols occurred prior to the capture of China proper.

很棒的答案,非常全面。中国领土扩张最多的汉朝、唐朝和清朝。不包括元朝,如果是这样的话,蒙古的扩张是发生在夺取中国本土之前的。

★Well, the modern idea of China as a nation-state has existed for just over a century. Before this the emperor ruled the land of China using The Mandate of Heaven, the divine right given to leaders to rule China. Now, get your closest map and look at how large China is. It hasn't always been that large. It's size really began to expand under the Qin Dynasty, the dynasty at which some historians begin referring to it as "Imperial China" around 200 BC. The country is huge and the majority of people in that country till just over a century ago (With the fall of the last royal dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty) believed that it could all be ruled by ONE monarch. To put it simply, China DID expand and encompass a huge amount of Eastern Asia (The nation state of China) until the other imperial powers (Japan, France, Russia, Britain) arrived during the rule of the Qing dynasty and "Carved China like a Melon" as it was said at the time. This political cartoon from the late 19th century shows why people may have forgotten about China's ancient imperial origins. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:China_imperialism_cartoon.jpg During the 19th century China was ruled by puppets for the benefit of younger imperial nations. This lead to a rise in Nationalist feeling, helped along by Confucianist scholars such as Sun Yat Sen, leading to an end to monarchy and therefore imperialism.

好吧,现代中国作为民族国家的概念只存在一个多世纪。在这之前,皇帝统治中国领土用"天命",即上天赋予他统治中国的权力。现在,拿出你身边的地图看看中国有多大。中国并不是一直都这样大。中国的领土直到秦朝才真正扩张,公元前200年历史学家们开始称这个朝代为"中华帝国"。这个国家很大,直到100多年前(那时中国的最后一个皇朝清朝覆灭)人们仍然相信国家应该被一个君主统治。简单的说,中国确实扩张了,囊括了东亚大部分地区,一直到清朝时其他帝国势力(日本,法国,俄国,英国)的侵入为止,那时有"把中国像甜瓜一样宰割"(Carved China like a Melon)的说法。这幅19世纪末的政治漫画展示了为什么人们会忘记了中国的古老帝国起源

19世纪,年轻的帝国主义国家们为了利益通过傀儡控制着中国。这导致了中国民族主义情绪的崛起,在儒家学者比如孙中山的帮助下,导致了君主统治和帝国主义的终结。

★One reason was that China was so large, that it didn't want any more land. China was content when vassal states like Korea, Vietnam and Burma showed their submission by sending them an annual tribute. China controlled Vietnam over several periods, but then it always reverted to the same system as before.

其中一个原因是中国已经够大了,她不再想要更多的土地了.中国非常满意她的属国比如朝鲜,越南和缅甸通过每年的朝贡来表示忠心.中国在不同的时期都控制过越南,总是分久必合.

★China did expand, very slowly over the last 4000 years. Most of the territory expansions occurred during the first 2000 years.

Unlike the Romans, the Chinese empire did not have the cultural need to expand.

Unlike other classic empires, the Chinese empire preferred growth inward, rather than outward. Most Chinese dynasties did not wage outward expansionary military campaigns, even when their populations were large.

Most empires are compelled to expand when their population become relatively high, and the need for new territory arises. China was different.

The exception in Chinese history was the Mongol ruled Yuan Dynasty, when the Mongols utilized Chinese resources to supply their campaigns into Europe (along with 2 failed invasions of Japan).

The Mongol rule only highlighted the case that the Chinese had the resources to allow expansion, but chose not to.

The cultural reason for Chinese rejection of expansion mainly has to do with Confucianism, which taught that the Chinese civilization should not mix too much with outsiders politically.

For the Chinese, they were in the center of civilization, culturally and in trade, for most part of history. "Barbarians" from all sides want to invade China, to steal her riches. Why would Chinese want to invade outside? There is nothing to gain.

Their "expansion" was inner expansion, to continually strengthen China, to defend China, Chinese civilization, and Chinese wealth and status.

中国确实在扩张.在过去的4000年里缓慢的扩张.大多数的领土增长出现在前2000年里.

不像罗马帝国,中华帝国并没有扩张的文化需要.

不像其他的古代帝国,中华帝国习惯在内部发展而不是向外.大多数中国王朝并没有向外侵略,即使是她的人口已经足够大.

大多数国家在人口处于一个相对较高的状态、有新的领土需求时,就会被迫进行扩张。但中国不一样。

中国历史上有一个例外就是蒙古人统治的元朝,当时蒙古人利用中国的资源来支持他们入侵欧洲(和两次对日本失败的侵略).

蒙古的统治证明了中国有力量来支持扩张,只是她没有选择扩张而已.

儒家文化是中国拒绝侵略他人的主要原因,儒家认为不应该在政治上与外界有太多联系.

对中国人来说,在历史上的大部分时间里,在文化和贸易上,他们都是文明的中心。从外面来的"野蛮人"一直想要入侵中国,偷取中国的财富.所以为啥中国人要去侵略外国呢,外国都是穷山恶水的不毛之地……

他们的扩张是内部的扩张,即继续壮大中国,保卫中国和中华文明以及中国的财富和地位。

★For one, as other posters mentioned, China did expand quite a bit: present day China was built out of centuries of expansion from China's original core territory between the Yangtze and the Yellow Rivers.

The reason why China havn't expanded even further is due to geogrphical circumstances: China is hemmed in to the west by deserts, south by the jungles of Vietnam, East by the Pacific Ocean, North by the steppes and Tundras of Siberia.

That's not to say Chinese dynasties did not try to overcome most of those: after centuries the Qing finally establish continuous control over what is now the Xinjiang province. Keep in mind this has being periodically under Chinese control since the Tang dynasty. Northern Vietnam spent a long time as either a Chinese province or vassal state. It's just that ultimately China essentially reached the limits of what a pre-modern state is able to expand to.

举个例子,正如其他回复提到过的,中国确实扩张了相当多:原本中国的核心领土在长江、黄河流域,现在的中国是经过几个世纪的扩张后形成的。

中国没有继续扩张是因为地理环境:西部被沙漠包围,南部是越南的热带雨林,东部是太平洋,北部是大草原和西伯利亚冻土。

这并非说中国历朝没有尝试征服这些地区:几个世纪后,清朝终于在今天的新疆建立了长期的统治。记住,这地区在唐朝之后都是周期性地被中国控制。北越在很长时间里都是中国的一个省或者附属国。只能说中国基本上达到了前现代国家所能扩张的极限。

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关键词:中国 帝国 对外 历史

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"马平:作为前工程师,我认为深圳滑坡事故是这么回事" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297295.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1225/1451004166233.jpg" ["description"]=> string(183) "一般来说,规划和建设部门会分别对建设区附近的地质条件进行勘探,分析地质灾害的可能性。对于可能出现滑坡的地段,应该进行治理。" ["time"]=> int(1451004167) } [10]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297290) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(45) "寒竹:中国历史中的社会主义根基" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297290.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1225/1451003740374.jpg" ["description"]=> string(213) "在经济领域进一步深化市场化导向的改革,是当下中国发展的一个重要方向。市场能够最大限度地实现资源的有效配置,从而给经济发展提供强大而持续的动力。" ["time"]=> int(1451003764) } [11]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297248) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(69) "自导自演的和平演变:越南反共总理政治炒作的背后" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297248.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1224/1450949829631.png" ["description"]=> string(303) "越南中央级的党报党刊、军报军刊最近发表大量文章,阐述党的路线和大政方针,同时揭露、批判“国内外各种敌对势力和政治机会主义分子”在十二大前的各种破坏阴谋和伎俩,强调要防范和反对“和平演变”和“颜色革命”。" ["time"]=> int(1450949950) } [12]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297247) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(42) "津巴布韦缘何“相中”人民币?" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297247.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1224/1450948423306.png" ["description"]=> string(140) "中国是津巴布韦的第二大贸易合作伙伴,每年双边贸易额超过10亿元,津巴布韦对人民币的需求日趋强烈。" ["time"]=> int(1450948518) } [13]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297246) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(33) "台湾选举提前结束了吗?" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297246.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1224/1450946885538.jpg" ["description"]=> string(108) "本来选战就是中间选民的争夺战,这一次,国民党要找回自己的基本盘,怎么了?" ["time"]=> int(1450946760) } [14]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297058) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(90) "清华博士:台湾是“杀出来的奴才,打出来的顺民,惯出来的孽种”" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297058.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1223/1450833056693.png" ["description"]=> string(297) "一直以来,中国政府奉行对台让利政策,对台湾的开放程度远远超过台湾对大陆的开放程度,就已在太阳花运动中被否定的“贸服协定”为例,对大陆的要求几乎全部是高于WTO中的规定,而对台湾却几乎全部是低于WTO的规定。" ["time"]=> int(1450833467) } [15]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297067) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(60) "金庸:揭中国人不擅长打仗为何却能赢的真相" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297067.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1223/1450834511242.jpg" ["description"]=> string(243) "现在许多西方学者都认为,地球就这样大了,无止境地追求、扩充,是不可能的,也是不可取的。今後只能接受中国的哲学,要平衡、要和谐,民族与民族之间要相互协作,避免战争。" ["time"]=> int(1450834575) } }

朱维群:达赖与暴力恐怖主义的关系能撇清吗

1朝鲜因李雪主不雅传单炸毁朝韩联络办公室
2唐山5.1级地震前,电视里弹出了预警信息
3专家解读对台作战:做好八项准备 调查"台独
478岁老兵拒戴口罩染新冠去世 他的子女这样
5新加坡执政党赢得大选 李显龙称结果不如预
6香港袭警男子潜逃最后目的地曝光 台湾网友
7河南洛阳一湖中现三米长“湖怪”
8这些国家,原来这么早就出现了新冠病毒踪迹
9傅莹:面对美方挑衅,中方应考虑"主动出牌"
10果然,特朗普又向美国高校发出威胁!
11美国彭博社:搞砸的不止特朗普与共和党
12运-20绝招让"胖妞"傲视天空 机翼里藏黑科技
13以色列空军再创辉煌 隐身机炸毁伊核工厂
14颠倒黑白!蓬佩奥炒作中印冲突 叫嚣中国侵
15瑞典前驻华大使无罪获释 案件缘起中国商人
16蓬佩奥歪曲中印边境冲突 外交部驳斥
17禁TikTok?这个民调结果,特朗普没想到吧
18唐山5.1级地震!北京震感明显,有人说“被
19航拍江西鄱阳县圩堤漫溃:决口120米 村庄汪
20蓬佩奥夸美国是"世界抗疫领导者" 被网友骂
1得赶紧把这个坏消息告诉美国人!
2哈萨克斯坦卫生部否认该国出现"不明原因肺
3联合国认定:美国违反《联合国宪章》
4白宫新闻秘书:全球将美国视为新冠疫情领导
5直播身后出现解手女子 女记者机智移挡住画
6特朗普演讲 将美对伊军事行动扣在越战头上
7朝鲜因李雪主不雅传单炸毁朝韩联络办公室
8唐山5.1级地震前,电视里弹出了预警信息
9澳妄称和中国"经济脱钩"?澳商界领袖:澳大
10惊险!消防员徒手抢出冒火“炸弹”
11印军越线挑衅画面曝光 修桥搭帐篷清晰可见
12要不要使用华为5G设备?英、法、德最新表态
13专家解读对台作战:做好八项准备 调查"台独
14驻港国安公署8日上午在香港揭牌 大楼外升起
15这回,黑人抗议者要碰一个西方最硬的“硬茬
16加拿大宣布对香港军事物资禁运 一看金额尴
17《纽约时报》把美国政府的反华阴谋给说漏了
18全球最大的新冠疫苗生产车间在中国建立
19CNN女主播听北京同事介绍防疫措施 露出不可
20“三武一宗”灭佛:理所当然名垂青史
1香港国安法全文公布!最高判无期,本法施行
2占豪:中印边境冲突伤亡惨重背后深层原因曝
3王毅对话金灿荣:中美博弈最新动态与走向
4白思豪欲在特朗普大厦前喷涂标语 遭特朗普
5美国参院通过“香港自治法案” 白宫曾紧急
620名印度士兵在边境与中国军人冲突中死亡
7新加坡前驻联大使:特朗普政府帮了中国
8《时代》周刊刊文:美国比中国差一百倍!
9特朗普转发假CNN视频抨击假新闻 遭推特禁用
10牛弹琴:2020下半场开始了,世界大变!
11特朗普亲侄女出书 揭露不为人知的特朗普
12张文木:青藏高原与中国整体安全
13梅新育:中印实力对比58年之变的警示
14弗洛伊德之死新视频曝光 让人更加愤怒
15中国外交部宣布对4家美国媒体采取反制措施
16胡新民:促使毛泽东拍板中印反击战的因素
17媒体:对华"反制"接连不断 印度切莫战略误
18中国公布核酸检测量,美日震惊
19我们对着台媒这个“报道”已经笑了一天……
20美国独立日大型集会,太可怕了!!!