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历史上中国为什么没对外扩张?中国是帝国吗?

2015-03-13 20:26 我要评论(0)

关键词:中国 帝国 对外 历史

核心提示:不太懂中国的历史,除了大多数朝代在一统中国后几乎从不向外扩张, 比如印度, 太平洋诸岛和俄罗斯。 中国为什么不开疆扩土或影响外界呢?

★They did! China is so large and contains so many people because the rulers of the various kingdoms and empires spent centuries conquering it. The Roman Empire at it's largest extent encompassed about a million square miles. China is 3 million square miles.

You can see the growth of the chinese empire(s) here.

他们也扩张的! 中国那么大,那么多人口,就是因为各个王国和王朝的统治者们花了数个世纪的时间征服得来的。罗马帝国在最强盛时期囊括了近百万平方英里的土地。中国有3百万平方英里的土地。你可以在下面的链接里观看中华帝国的成长史。

★It is also instructive to look at the diversity of ethnicity that is present still in the modern territory of China. as seen in this map

在下面链接的地图里,你也可以获得有关中国现代版图上的族群多样性的有益资料。

★In addition there are different languages spoken in modern China as well. More Info Here.

除此之外1,在现代中国也存在着多种语言。下面链接可以找到更多资料。

★The truth is that the outsider's scope of understanding of the people and experience of China is often limited to Han Chinese. I don't know enough about archaic Chinese history to say anything about the diversity of cultures and polities that were lost in the expansion of the dominant Han culture, but those that remain can give you some idea about the territorial conquests achieved by China in the past. Were China really the model nation state for the principal of the self determination of nations, China's current territory would be much smaller.

事实的真相是外部对中国的了解经常局限于汉族。我对中国古代史了解不多,对于在强势的汉文化扩张过程中消失的诸多政权及文化没有发言权。但是,存留下来的那些会让你对中国过去的领土扩张有所了解。中国要真是一个奉行民族自决的模范国家,中国现在的版图要小得多。

★The modern border of China largely comes from the Qing (Manchus) conquest. I think one must have a proper understanding of the term "Chinese" before understanding this question.

The "Chinese (Chunghwa) Nation" as people now understands it, is a relative new concept. The root was primitively developed in the early days of Qing Dynasty as an anti-Mancurian rally cry. It evolved during the Western imperialism period of China to form "five races under one union", another nationalistic rally cry espoused by many revolutionaries, most famously Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. The concept evolved to encompass the various ethinicities (officially 56 of them) in the modern border of China.

Before the concept of Chinese nation, there really wasn't a China as people would recognize nowadays. The dominant race, Han, grew from the various tribal lords around the Yellow River valley who organized themselves together. In fact, that's considered the traditional area of Han people, earning it the name of "Central Plains" (often translated as Central China).

So a more specific question would therefore be: Did Han Chinese expand their borders? Yes, they absolutely did. Once united by a single ruler, they expanded out of the central plains into other area during the Han (namesake of the race) Dynasty. The current southeastern area of China was the traditional land of the Minyue tribes, who were conquered during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. The also expanded toward south, defeating the Nanyue tribes, southwest (to what is present day Yunnan), by defeating the Dian tribes. To the west, the expanded into the various oasis town over the traditional silk road trade routes. Since Han people had a very dominant culture, once they expanded into an area they cause the local to sinicize, which is why people do not see much difference between the traditionally non-Han areas and central plains.

I'm skipping A LOT of history here, but When Manchus conquered the Han rulers of Ming dynasty to form Qing Dynasty, they also brought the more peripherals areas of China into the imperial fold. Tibet, Manchuria, East Turkestan, Taiwan, etc were added into the same political entity that ruled over Han people.

So in short, Chinese people absolutely did expand. The modern border of China was a result of Manchurian expansion, and the more traditional area of China (ie China proper) was the result of Han Dynasty expansion.

中国现在的边界大多要归功于清朝(满洲人)的占领。我认为要理解这个问题先得正确理解"中国"这个词。现在人理解的"中华民族"是一个相当新的概念。它最初是由清朝初期的反清同盟提出的。在后来的西方帝国主义入侵中国期间,它演化成"五族共和",另一个许多革命者--最著名的是孙逸仙医生--拥护的口号。现在,它又演化成包含中国版图上的各个民族(官方56个)。在中华民族这个概念之前,并不存在一个如现在人们所认可的中国。主流民族"汉族"是由黄河流域的各个部落头领联合起来逐渐发展壮大起来的。事实上,那才是汉人的传统地盘,名叫中原(通常翻译成Central China)。所以,更确切的问题应该是:汉人是否扩张领土?是的,他们绝对扩张。在汉(与族同名)朝,一旦统一在一个君主旗下,他们就从中原扩张到其它地区。现在的东南部原是闽越故土,在汉代东南扩张中被占领。他们也向南扩张,征服南越部落;向西南(现在的云南),征服滇地部落;向西,深入到传统丝绸之路上的各个绿洲城邦。

由于汉人的强势文化,他们扩张到哪里就汉化哪里。这就是为什么人们看不到传统上的非汉地区与中原地区有多大区别的原因。

我在这里跳过了好多历史史实。当满人打败明朝的汉人君主建立清朝时,他们也把中国周边地区带入了帝国版图。西藏、满洲、新疆,台湾等地区也被这个统治着汉人的政权纳入囊中。

总之,简而言之,中国人是绝对搞扩张的。中国现代边界是满人扩张的结果,而中国更传统上的地区(汉地)则是汉朝扩张的结果。

(回楼上)

★Great answer, and very comprehensive. The most expansionist dynasties of China were the Han, Tang, and Qing.* *Excluding the Yuan. In that case, expansion by the Mongols occurred prior to the capture of China proper.

很棒的答案,非常全面。中国领土扩张最多的汉朝、唐朝和清朝。不包括元朝,如果是这样的话,蒙古的扩张是发生在夺取中国本土之前的。

★Well, the modern idea of China as a nation-state has existed for just over a century. Before this the emperor ruled the land of China using The Mandate of Heaven, the divine right given to leaders to rule China. Now, get your closest map and look at how large China is. It hasn't always been that large. It's size really began to expand under the Qin Dynasty, the dynasty at which some historians begin referring to it as "Imperial China" around 200 BC. The country is huge and the majority of people in that country till just over a century ago (With the fall of the last royal dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty) believed that it could all be ruled by ONE monarch. To put it simply, China DID expand and encompass a huge amount of Eastern Asia (The nation state of China) until the other imperial powers (Japan, France, Russia, Britain) arrived during the rule of the Qing dynasty and "Carved China like a Melon" as it was said at the time. This political cartoon from the late 19th century shows why people may have forgotten about China's ancient imperial origins. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:China_imperialism_cartoon.jpg During the 19th century China was ruled by puppets for the benefit of younger imperial nations. This lead to a rise in Nationalist feeling, helped along by Confucianist scholars such as Sun Yat Sen, leading to an end to monarchy and therefore imperialism.

好吧,现代中国作为民族国家的概念只存在一个多世纪。在这之前,皇帝统治中国领土用"天命",即上天赋予他统治中国的权力。现在,拿出你身边的地图看看中国有多大。中国并不是一直都这样大。中国的领土直到秦朝才真正扩张,公元前200年历史学家们开始称这个朝代为"中华帝国"。这个国家很大,直到100多年前(那时中国的最后一个皇朝清朝覆灭)人们仍然相信国家应该被一个君主统治。简单的说,中国确实扩张了,囊括了东亚大部分地区,一直到清朝时其他帝国势力(日本,法国,俄国,英国)的侵入为止,那时有"把中国像甜瓜一样宰割"(Carved China like a Melon)的说法。这幅19世纪末的政治漫画展示了为什么人们会忘记了中国的古老帝国起源

19世纪,年轻的帝国主义国家们为了利益通过傀儡控制着中国。这导致了中国民族主义情绪的崛起,在儒家学者比如孙中山的帮助下,导致了君主统治和帝国主义的终结。

★One reason was that China was so large, that it didn't want any more land. China was content when vassal states like Korea, Vietnam and Burma showed their submission by sending them an annual tribute. China controlled Vietnam over several periods, but then it always reverted to the same system as before.

其中一个原因是中国已经够大了,她不再想要更多的土地了.中国非常满意她的属国比如朝鲜,越南和缅甸通过每年的朝贡来表示忠心.中国在不同的时期都控制过越南,总是分久必合.

★China did expand, very slowly over the last 4000 years. Most of the territory expansions occurred during the first 2000 years.

Unlike the Romans, the Chinese empire did not have the cultural need to expand.

Unlike other classic empires, the Chinese empire preferred growth inward, rather than outward. Most Chinese dynasties did not wage outward expansionary military campaigns, even when their populations were large.

Most empires are compelled to expand when their population become relatively high, and the need for new territory arises. China was different.

The exception in Chinese history was the Mongol ruled Yuan Dynasty, when the Mongols utilized Chinese resources to supply their campaigns into Europe (along with 2 failed invasions of Japan).

The Mongol rule only highlighted the case that the Chinese had the resources to allow expansion, but chose not to.

The cultural reason for Chinese rejection of expansion mainly has to do with Confucianism, which taught that the Chinese civilization should not mix too much with outsiders politically.

For the Chinese, they were in the center of civilization, culturally and in trade, for most part of history. "Barbarians" from all sides want to invade China, to steal her riches. Why would Chinese want to invade outside? There is nothing to gain.

Their "expansion" was inner expansion, to continually strengthen China, to defend China, Chinese civilization, and Chinese wealth and status.

中国确实在扩张.在过去的4000年里缓慢的扩张.大多数的领土增长出现在前2000年里.

不像罗马帝国,中华帝国并没有扩张的文化需要.

不像其他的古代帝国,中华帝国习惯在内部发展而不是向外.大多数中国王朝并没有向外侵略,即使是她的人口已经足够大.

大多数国家在人口处于一个相对较高的状态、有新的领土需求时,就会被迫进行扩张。但中国不一样。

中国历史上有一个例外就是蒙古人统治的元朝,当时蒙古人利用中国的资源来支持他们入侵欧洲(和两次对日本失败的侵略).

蒙古的统治证明了中国有力量来支持扩张,只是她没有选择扩张而已.

儒家文化是中国拒绝侵略他人的主要原因,儒家认为不应该在政治上与外界有太多联系.

对中国人来说,在历史上的大部分时间里,在文化和贸易上,他们都是文明的中心。从外面来的"野蛮人"一直想要入侵中国,偷取中国的财富.所以为啥中国人要去侵略外国呢,外国都是穷山恶水的不毛之地……

他们的扩张是内部的扩张,即继续壮大中国,保卫中国和中华文明以及中国的财富和地位。

★For one, as other posters mentioned, China did expand quite a bit: present day China was built out of centuries of expansion from China's original core territory between the Yangtze and the Yellow Rivers.

The reason why China havn't expanded even further is due to geogrphical circumstances: China is hemmed in to the west by deserts, south by the jungles of Vietnam, East by the Pacific Ocean, North by the steppes and Tundras of Siberia.

That's not to say Chinese dynasties did not try to overcome most of those: after centuries the Qing finally establish continuous control over what is now the Xinjiang province. Keep in mind this has being periodically under Chinese control since the Tang dynasty. Northern Vietnam spent a long time as either a Chinese province or vassal state. It's just that ultimately China essentially reached the limits of what a pre-modern state is able to expand to.

举个例子,正如其他回复提到过的,中国确实扩张了相当多:原本中国的核心领土在长江、黄河流域,现在的中国是经过几个世纪的扩张后形成的。

中国没有继续扩张是因为地理环境:西部被沙漠包围,南部是越南的热带雨林,东部是太平洋,北部是大草原和西伯利亚冻土。

这并非说中国历朝没有尝试征服这些地区:几个世纪后,清朝终于在今天的新疆建立了长期的统治。记住,这地区在唐朝之后都是周期性地被中国控制。北越在很长时间里都是中国的一个省或者附属国。只能说中国基本上达到了前现代国家所能扩张的极限。

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关键词:中国 帝国 对外 历史

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"马平:作为前工程师,我认为深圳滑坡事故是这么回事" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297295.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1225/1451004166233.jpg" ["description"]=> string(183) "一般来说,规划和建设部门会分别对建设区附近的地质条件进行勘探,分析地质灾害的可能性。对于可能出现滑坡的地段,应该进行治理。" ["time"]=> int(1451004167) } [10]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297290) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(45) "寒竹:中国历史中的社会主义根基" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297290.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1225/1451003740374.jpg" ["description"]=> string(213) "在经济领域进一步深化市场化导向的改革,是当下中国发展的一个重要方向。市场能够最大限度地实现资源的有效配置,从而给经济发展提供强大而持续的动力。" ["time"]=> int(1451003764) } [11]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297248) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(69) "自导自演的和平演变:越南反共总理政治炒作的背后" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297248.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1224/1450949829631.png" ["description"]=> string(303) "越南中央级的党报党刊、军报军刊最近发表大量文章,阐述党的路线和大政方针,同时揭露、批判“国内外各种敌对势力和政治机会主义分子”在十二大前的各种破坏阴谋和伎俩,强调要防范和反对“和平演变”和“颜色革命”。" ["time"]=> int(1450949950) } [12]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297247) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(42) "津巴布韦缘何“相中”人民币?" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297247.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1224/1450948423306.png" ["description"]=> string(140) "中国是津巴布韦的第二大贸易合作伙伴,每年双边贸易额超过10亿元,津巴布韦对人民币的需求日趋强烈。" ["time"]=> int(1450948518) } [13]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297246) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(33) "台湾选举提前结束了吗?" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297246.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1224/1450946885538.jpg" ["description"]=> string(108) "本来选战就是中间选民的争夺战,这一次,国民党要找回自己的基本盘,怎么了?" ["time"]=> int(1450946760) } [14]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297058) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(90) "清华博士:台湾是“杀出来的奴才,打出来的顺民,惯出来的孽种”" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297058.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1223/1450833056693.png" ["description"]=> string(297) "一直以来,中国政府奉行对台让利政策,对台湾的开放程度远远超过台湾对大陆的开放程度,就已在太阳花运动中被否定的“贸服协定”为例,对大陆的要求几乎全部是高于WTO中的规定,而对台湾却几乎全部是低于WTO的规定。" ["time"]=> int(1450833467) } [15]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297067) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(60) "金庸:揭中国人不擅长打仗为何却能赢的真相" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "http://www.m4.cn/opinion/2015-12/1297067.shtml" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "http://upload.m4.cn/2015/1223/1450834511242.jpg" ["description"]=> string(243) "现在许多西方学者都认为,地球就这样大了,无止境地追求、扩充,是不可能的,也是不可取的。今後只能接受中国的哲学,要平衡、要和谐,民族与民族之间要相互协作,避免战争。" ["time"]=> int(1450834575) } }

朱维群:达赖与暴力恐怖主义的关系能撇清吗

1马德里动物园管理员被自己从小养大的大猩猩
2希腊人谈中国的视频火了,网友:也太了解中
3超级重器!中国国产最大盾构机"京华号"下线
4台当局扬言不用大陆疫苗 被讽:大陆稀罕你
5重磅!纽约时报揭露特朗普10年未缴个人所得
6一夜之间,武汉“红”了
7亚美尼亚阿塞拜疆激烈交火!双方公布战果
8美国21州疫情现重燃迹象 预计单日死亡人数
9这个民调结果一出,蔡英文压力要更大了
10台原住民歌手"我是骄傲的中国人"岛内网友点
11亚美尼亚与阿塞拜疆爆发新冲突,普京发声
12第七批在韩志愿军烈士在沈阳安葬 鸣枪致敬
13印度快报:揭开印方屡次挑衅中国的深层次原
14意媒:蓬佩奥将造访罗马 教皇拒绝与他会面
15一箭双星 中国成功发射环境减灾二号A、B卫
16西班牙一家废弃农场内动物自相残杀 饥饿宠
17耿直哥:特朗普的女儿伊万卡,可能危险了?
18时隔45天,华春莹为福奇再次发出感叹!
19美法官裁决封禁白宫TikTok行政令暂缓生效
20运20抵达仁川接第7批志愿军烈士遗骸回国
1马德里动物园管理员被自己从小养大的大猩猩
2来吵架的?特朗普联大讲话大篇幅攻击中国,
3美国人被这个案子的进展震惊了,美国政府也
4世卫科学家:中国新冠疫苗已被证明有效
5胡锡进:美军驻台?那就请准备迎接战争吧
6美国承认了:香港骚乱就是由他们支持和煽动
7耿直哥:巴巴多斯脱离英联邦也能赖上中国?
8专家建议:中国不保证不开第一枪
9周雪玲:印度到底行不行?
10普京与马克龙秘密通话泄露,重要内容被曝光
11“祝福祖国”大花篮亮相北京天安门广场
12侯中军:美国为何不同意台湾出兵朝鲜?
1377集团军合成旅雪域高原演练多炮种实射
14希腊人谈中国的视频火了,网友:也太了解中
15蓬佩奥威胁逮捕中国外交官 外交部回应
16防疫让日本得到一个意外惊喜?
17男子阿肯色公园挖出9.07克拉钻石 差点当玻
18国家再宣布重磅消息:"突围"芯片关键材料
19深度:美国社会真的相信科学家吗?
20环评:特朗普联大粗俗攻击中国 暴露了什么
1马德里动物园管理员被自己从小养大的大猩猩
2王洪光:印军若冒犯 四策使其遭灭顶之灾!
3对印大打中打小打,我们都准备好了
4特朗普禁令生效前 腾讯将办公版微信改名
5习近平的这五句话,掷地有声!
6储贺军:从《八佰》谈到解放台湾
7胡锡进:中国在不得不战时可放手一战
8来吵架的?特朗普联大讲话大篇幅攻击中国,
9郑永年教授:信号如此明显, 为何很多人还深
10时殷弘:大选结束前 中美之间六件事情已明
11超震撼!运-20从头顶掠过是种什么体验?
12重磅!数十万人紧急接种国产新冠灭活疫苗
13美当局:已做好“大规模伤亡”的准备
14CNN这直播,也实在太尴尬了……
15李毅答黄年:渡江战役后大陆不可能承认中华
16东部战区官微发话:丢掉幻想,准备战斗
17马丁·雅克:美国为什么一直针对中国?
18中国自主三代核电华龙一号全球首堆开始装料
19美国女孩录视频时 妈妈踏破天花板从天而降
20英德法三国致函安理会主席:不会恢复对伊制