2015-03-13 20:26 我要评论(0)

关键词:中国 帝国 对外 历史

核心提示:不太懂中国的历史,除了大多数朝代在一统中国后几乎从不向外扩张, 比如印度, 太平洋诸岛和俄罗斯。 中国为什么不开疆扩土或影响外界呢?

★They did! China is so large and contains so many people because the rulers of the various kingdoms and empires spent centuries conquering it. The Roman Empire at it's largest extent encompassed about a million square miles. China is 3 million square miles.

You can see the growth of the chinese empire(s) here.

他们也扩张的! 中国那么大,那么多人口,就是因为各个王国和王朝的统治者们花了数个世纪的时间征服得来的。罗马帝国在最强盛时期囊括了近百万平方英里的土地。中国有3百万平方英里的土地。你可以在下面的链接里观看中华帝国的成长史。

★It is also instructive to look at the diversity of ethnicity that is present still in the modern territory of China. as seen in this map


★In addition there are different languages spoken in modern China as well. More Info Here.


★The truth is that the outsider's scope of understanding of the people and experience of China is often limited to Han Chinese. I don't know enough about archaic Chinese history to say anything about the diversity of cultures and polities that were lost in the expansion of the dominant Han culture, but those that remain can give you some idea about the territorial conquests achieved by China in the past. Were China really the model nation state for the principal of the self determination of nations, China's current territory would be much smaller.


★The modern border of China largely comes from the Qing (Manchus) conquest. I think one must have a proper understanding of the term "Chinese" before understanding this question.

The "Chinese (Chunghwa) Nation" as people now understands it, is a relative new concept. The root was primitively developed in the early days of Qing Dynasty as an anti-Mancurian rally cry. It evolved during the Western imperialism period of China to form "five races under one union", another nationalistic rally cry espoused by many revolutionaries, most famously Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. The concept evolved to encompass the various ethinicities (officially 56 of them) in the modern border of China.

Before the concept of Chinese nation, there really wasn't a China as people would recognize nowadays. The dominant race, Han, grew from the various tribal lords around the Yellow River valley who organized themselves together. In fact, that's considered the traditional area of Han people, earning it the name of "Central Plains" (often translated as Central China).

So a more specific question would therefore be: Did Han Chinese expand their borders? Yes, they absolutely did. Once united by a single ruler, they expanded out of the central plains into other area during the Han (namesake of the race) Dynasty. The current southeastern area of China was the traditional land of the Minyue tribes, who were conquered during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. The also expanded toward south, defeating the Nanyue tribes, southwest (to what is present day Yunnan), by defeating the Dian tribes. To the west, the expanded into the various oasis town over the traditional silk road trade routes. Since Han people had a very dominant culture, once they expanded into an area they cause the local to sinicize, which is why people do not see much difference between the traditionally non-Han areas and central plains.

I'm skipping A LOT of history here, but When Manchus conquered the Han rulers of Ming dynasty to form Qing Dynasty, they also brought the more peripherals areas of China into the imperial fold. Tibet, Manchuria, East Turkestan, Taiwan, etc were added into the same political entity that ruled over Han people.

So in short, Chinese people absolutely did expand. The modern border of China was a result of Manchurian expansion, and the more traditional area of China (ie China proper) was the result of Han Dynasty expansion.

中国现在的边界大多要归功于清朝(满洲人)的占领。我认为要理解这个问题先得正确理解"中国"这个词。现在人理解的"中华民族"是一个相当新的概念。它最初是由清朝初期的反清同盟提出的。在后来的西方帝国主义入侵中国期间,它演化成"五族共和",另一个许多革命者--最著名的是孙逸仙医生--拥护的口号。现在,它又演化成包含中国版图上的各个民族(官方56个)。在中华民族这个概念之前,并不存在一个如现在人们所认可的中国。主流民族"汉族"是由黄河流域的各个部落头领联合起来逐渐发展壮大起来的。事实上,那才是汉人的传统地盘,名叫中原(通常翻译成Central China)。所以,更确切的问题应该是:汉人是否扩张领土?是的,他们绝对扩张。在汉(与族同名)朝,一旦统一在一个君主旗下,他们就从中原扩张到其它地区。现在的东南部原是闽越故土,在汉代东南扩张中被占领。他们也向南扩张,征服南越部落;向西南(现在的云南),征服滇地部落;向西,深入到传统丝绸之路上的各个绿洲城邦。





★Great answer, and very comprehensive. The most expansionist dynasties of China were the Han, Tang, and Qing.* *Excluding the Yuan. In that case, expansion by the Mongols occurred prior to the capture of China proper.


★Well, the modern idea of China as a nation-state has existed for just over a century. Before this the emperor ruled the land of China using The Mandate of Heaven, the divine right given to leaders to rule China. Now, get your closest map and look at how large China is. It hasn't always been that large. It's size really began to expand under the Qin Dynasty, the dynasty at which some historians begin referring to it as "Imperial China" around 200 BC. The country is huge and the majority of people in that country till just over a century ago (With the fall of the last royal dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty) believed that it could all be ruled by ONE monarch. To put it simply, China DID expand and encompass a huge amount of Eastern Asia (The nation state of China) until the other imperial powers (Japan, France, Russia, Britain) arrived during the rule of the Qing dynasty and "Carved China like a Melon" as it was said at the time. This political cartoon from the late 19th century shows why people may have forgotten about China's ancient imperial origins. During the 19th century China was ruled by puppets for the benefit of younger imperial nations. This lead to a rise in Nationalist feeling, helped along by Confucianist scholars such as Sun Yat Sen, leading to an end to monarchy and therefore imperialism.

好吧,现代中国作为民族国家的概念只存在一个多世纪。在这之前,皇帝统治中国领土用"天命",即上天赋予他统治中国的权力。现在,拿出你身边的地图看看中国有多大。中国并不是一直都这样大。中国的领土直到秦朝才真正扩张,公元前200年历史学家们开始称这个朝代为"中华帝国"。这个国家很大,直到100多年前(那时中国的最后一个皇朝清朝覆灭)人们仍然相信国家应该被一个君主统治。简单的说,中国确实扩张了,囊括了东亚大部分地区,一直到清朝时其他帝国势力(日本,法国,俄国,英国)的侵入为止,那时有"把中国像甜瓜一样宰割"(Carved China like a Melon)的说法。这幅19世纪末的政治漫画展示了为什么人们会忘记了中国的古老帝国起源


★One reason was that China was so large, that it didn't want any more land. China was content when vassal states like Korea, Vietnam and Burma showed their submission by sending them an annual tribute. China controlled Vietnam over several periods, but then it always reverted to the same system as before.


★China did expand, very slowly over the last 4000 years. Most of the territory expansions occurred during the first 2000 years.

Unlike the Romans, the Chinese empire did not have the cultural need to expand.

Unlike other classic empires, the Chinese empire preferred growth inward, rather than outward. Most Chinese dynasties did not wage outward expansionary military campaigns, even when their populations were large.

Most empires are compelled to expand when their population become relatively high, and the need for new territory arises. China was different.

The exception in Chinese history was the Mongol ruled Yuan Dynasty, when the Mongols utilized Chinese resources to supply their campaigns into Europe (along with 2 failed invasions of Japan).

The Mongol rule only highlighted the case that the Chinese had the resources to allow expansion, but chose not to.

The cultural reason for Chinese rejection of expansion mainly has to do with Confucianism, which taught that the Chinese civilization should not mix too much with outsiders politically.

For the Chinese, they were in the center of civilization, culturally and in trade, for most part of history. "Barbarians" from all sides want to invade China, to steal her riches. Why would Chinese want to invade outside? There is nothing to gain.

Their "expansion" was inner expansion, to continually strengthen China, to defend China, Chinese civilization, and Chinese wealth and status.










★For one, as other posters mentioned, China did expand quite a bit: present day China was built out of centuries of expansion from China's original core territory between the Yangtze and the Yellow Rivers.

The reason why China havn't expanded even further is due to geogrphical circumstances: China is hemmed in to the west by deserts, south by the jungles of Vietnam, East by the Pacific Ocean, North by the steppes and Tundras of Siberia.

That's not to say Chinese dynasties did not try to overcome most of those: after centuries the Qing finally establish continuous control over what is now the Xinjiang province. Keep in mind this has being periodically under Chinese control since the Tang dynasty. Northern Vietnam spent a long time as either a Chinese province or vassal state. It's just that ultimately China essentially reached the limits of what a pre-modern state is able to expand to.





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关键词:中国 帝国 对外 历史

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