2015-01-05 11:54 我要评论(0)

关键词:拉丁美洲 中国 事情 有关 环境


New book argues Chinese firms’ presence in Latin America focuses on the most environmentally-damaging sector


Question: when did contemporary political and media debate start on China’s “entry” into the Western hemisphere? 

Answer: January 1997, when Panama awarded concessions to a Chinese company to operate port facilities on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts at both ends of the Panama Canal, just after having obtained control of it from the US.


Question: when did Latin America and the Caribbean wake up to its dramatically expanding new relationship with China?

Answer: November 2004, when the then Chinese president Hu Jintao visited Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Cuba and apparently spoke of the possibility of investing US$100 billion in the region – although the Chinese government later claimed it had been mistranslated and the US$100 billion referred to bilateral trade.



That, at least, is what Evan Ellis, a researcher at the U.S. Army War College and considered by some to be a leading expert on China-Latin America relations, states in his new book China on the Ground in Latin America: Challenges for the Chinese and Impacts on the Region. Ellis’s main argument is that in the last few years the Chinese have started to establish a new, “significant” physical presence in Latin America and the Caribbean – following trade deals, acquisitions, loans and loan-backed construction projects, among other things. As a result, Ellis argues that China now finds itself, for the first time in its 5,000 year history, connected to however many million non-Chinese people in other countries and dependent on the “success and well-being of its commercial representatives in distant parts of the world.”

While the focus of his book is Chinese acquisitions, loans, other commercial dealings and the challenges these pose for the Chinese government, companies and Chinese people living in Latin America, Ellis has various things to say about the environment. Here are 10 – some of which you may agree with, others you may not – I picked out: Evan Ellis,

美国陆军学院研究员,是研究中国-拉美关系的知名专家。情况至少像这位专家在它的新书《中国在拉美大陆:中国的挑战和对拉美的影响》里说的大抵相同。他的主要观点是,最近几年,伴随着中国在这个区域的一系列的贸易,兼并,贷款和承揽基于贷款的建设工程,中国已经开始在拉美和加勒比地区建立新的“令人瞩目”的实际存在,另外还有其他的影响。因此,Ellis认为中国现在已经意识到,她在5000年的历史中从未与其他国家的如此众多非华裔群体产生过这么紧密的联系,而且依赖于这些遥远地方的商业代表们的成功和幸福。 虽然这本书的重点是阐述中国在拉美的兼并,贷款和其他商业贸易活动,以及国政府,企业和在拉美生活的中国人面临的挑战。但是Ellis对环境问题也谈了不少看法。我从中挑出来10条,让大家可以根据自己的理解去判断。

1 Chinese companies have focused on developing their physical presence in Latin America in the sectors that are most likely to generate environmental impacts and concerns: petroleum, mining and agriculture. The Chinese presence in petroleum is most significant in Venezuela, Ecuador and Argentina, and in mining in Ecuador and Peru.

2 Resistance from “environmentalists and local communities” is one of the major challenges facing Chinese companies trying to make acquisitions and win contracts in Latin America. To date, projects involving Chinese investors have “often” been “opposed on environmental grounds, or because of their impact on local communities and indigenous groups,” writes Ellis, citing the Chone dam project and Mirador mine in Ecuador, the Belo Monte dam in Brazil, the Rio Blanco mine in Peru, the Lupe mine in Mexico, a soy processing facility in Rio Negro in Argentina, the Agua Zarca dam project in Honduras, and the River Magdalena in Colombia as examples. 


2,来自环保人士和当地社区的抗议是中国企业在拉美开展并购和承揽项目时,面临的最大挑战。迄今为止,涉及中国资本的项目经常遭遇搁浅,要么因为环境原因遭到反对,要么由于对当地社区和土著群体产生了不利影响。Ellis在书中援引了下面的几个项目:厄瓜多尔的Chone水坝工程和米拉多尔采矿工程,巴西的贝洛蒙特水坝工程,秘鲁的里约布兰科采矿工程,墨西哥的卢佩采矿工程,阿根廷的尼格罗大豆加工厂工程,洪都拉斯Agua Zarca水坝工程以及哥伦比亚的马格达莱纳河工程。

3 Opposition to Chinese projects on environmental grounds is “likely to expand in the future because of the number of potential projects. . . that involve environmentally sensitive areas.” These include plans to develop Goat Island, Jamaica, into an “international shipping hub” and the exploitation of the Ishpingo, Tambococha and Tiputini (ITT) oil fields in the far east of the Yasuní National Park in Ecuador where Ellis says the “Chinese corporations who have already done the exploratory drilling are the leading contenders” to win contracts. Indeed, Ellis states that although “no official link” exists between ITT and the construction of a new refinery on Ecuador’s Pacific coast, “a senior Ecuadorian source speaking off-the-record suggested that the granting of the rights for ITT may be a condition pursued by the Chinese for the funding of the Refinery. . . which would be fed by the petroleum extracted there.” 

3,涉及自然保护区的潜在项目有很多,因而中国承揽的项目因为环境原因遭到反对的情况很在未来会越来越普遍。潜在的项目包括牙买加公羊岛国际航运中心项目和厄瓜多尔亚苏尼国家公园远东ITT(Ishpingo, Tambococha and Tiputini )油田项目。关于后者,Ellis提到,一家中国企业已经实施可行性钻探,并且是项目的主要竞争者。事实上,Ellis说,尽管ITT 和在厄瓜多尔海岸新建炼油厂之间不存在官方联系,但是一位厄瓜多尔高层人士曾非正式表示,中国可能会根据ITT油田项目的中标情况来决定是否给这个炼油厂出资,而在将来这个炼油厂的用油将会来自ITT油田。

4 Environmental concerns are a major challenge for Chinese companies not because they are “inherently less respectful of the environment” than others, but “because of a confluence of factors” including the high environmental impacts of the sectors they are focusing on, a “cultural distance” between Chinese and Latin American people, and Chinese companies’ lack of experience in the region. One example: “Chinese executives and managers often presume that local authorities will be able to force local residents to comply with decisions to relocate their homes. . . and may mistakenly presume that, as long as they have reached an agreement with the appropriate government authorities, the local communities and other actors will comply with the decisions.”

5 “Environmental complaints” have already been made about various ongoing Chinese projects. These include the Marcona mine in Peru run by the company Shougang, the Cerro Maimon mine in the Dominican Republic, and the Sierra Grande mine in Argentina. 


5,各种各样的中国在建项目都会遭到环保方面的投诉,比如首钢在秘鲁马尔科纳的采矿项目,多明尼亚的Cerro Maimon采矿项目以及阿根廷的赛拉格兰德采矿项目。

6 Chinese companies “have made efforts to improve their environmental practices where they have felt it necessary to do so, in order to avoid problems with governments and communities.” Ellis cites new technology by company Bosai to address dust problems caused by bauxite mining in Guyana as one example, and ten “environmental protection projects oriented toward wastewater, dust and air pollution” at the Marcona mine in Peru as another.

7 Offshore drilling by Chinese companies in Latin America and the Caribbean is particularly risky in terms of environmental impacts because “they are relatively new to producing and using deepwater drilling technology.” Ellis argues that Chinese operations are “arguably even more vulnerable to such risks” than was BP before the Deepwater Horizon Gulf of Mexico blowout in 2010.

8 Although “many [Chinese companies in Latin America] do behave badly” – either “due to a combination of willful imposition of Chinese norms and practices that do not function well in the new context, or accidentally, due to a lack of knowledge regarding local norms” – they “do not inherently behave worse than their Western counterparts” (Ellis’s italics). 




9 A “significant portion” of the new Chinese presence in Latin America is in the renewable energy sector where companies “have been a key force in the “green revolution” transforming the energy generation mix” and “slowly moving the electricity infrastructure of the region away from fossil fuels.” Ellis states that “of the many projects and acquisitions by Chinese firms in the electricity generation sector. . . only a very small number have involved traditional fossil fuel power generation facilities”, with a focus instead on hydroelectric and what Ellis calls a “wave of new solar and wind power projects” across Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico.

10 What better way to end than with one particularly emblematic example and startling claim? Despite a January 2014 announcement that work would begin on a canal through Nicaragua by the end of this year or early 2015, “as this book went to press, a public announcement regarding the route to be taken by the canal had not been made, nor had any information been made public regarding environmental impact” (my italics, this time). Indeed, a report published in September by the Alexander von Humboldt Studies Centre in Nicaragua states that “technical information of environmental character generated during the design, construction and operation of the Great Canal and associated projects will remain confidential,” under the terms of the concession agreement. Von Humboldt calls the canal – due to be built by the Hong Kong-based HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Company – and associated infrastructure the biggest environmental threat to the country in its history.




★Items 2-5 apply to Chinese activities in Canada and very much so; it's not like environmental and indigenous opposition is limited to Latin America. Point taken re No. 8 though, Canadian mining companies are ever bit as culpable in Latin America (or Canada) as China is anywhere. 


The Guardian should start covering Canada to the same degree they cover Australia, with an Australian bureau. That our national politics barely gets covered while domestic state politics in Oz get covered regularly is just odd...... 


The Earth needs a break from human behaviour. At what point do we say 'we have raped the planet to the furthest extent that we intend' - if lovers of drilling and big business can answer that single point - show me that greed has a break then their arguments will appear more sane and rational. Alas the truth is that greed does not have a break and in the coming corporate world there simply will be no central power able to stop anything, the greed of millions of individuals will BE the 'Government' and it guarantees total destruction of this planet. 

地球已经受够了人类的暴行,它需要休息。什么时候我们才能心满意足的说,我们已经把地球折腾够了-只有当这些在地球上钻孔的狂热者和商人能回答这个问题时候-让我知道他们的贪欲已经得到满足的时候,或许上述的言论才算能算是合理和正常。 哎,事实上这些贪婪的人永远得不到满足,在这个越来越商业化的世界上,没有什么力量可以阻挡他们分毫,因为这些无数的贪婪的个体组成了“政府”,而政府又把地球许诺给他们,让他们尽情破坏。 

An unsurprising selection of 10 things this blogger wants to tell us. It's interesting that he believes green lobby groups will be one of the big obstacles to the success of these important projects. If true, this suggests that the development of these areas could be far easier than many imagine. The benefits of this development, both at the local level and the national level, can be tremendous. Let's hope they are achieved. 


it is so little news about environmental protest against Lynas australian firm in malaysia despite there are mass protest for several times. 


so called protest funded by the western power this is what the western media cant say because press freedom dont exist in the west it is so rare to hear any protest about environmental issue against western company. as if western company had better credibility? what happen to india? Bhopal: Tragedy lives on 


if The Guardian covered Canadian domestic politics to the same degree they do for Australia, there'd be lots of such coverage because of the number of battlefronts on environmental/native issues; but even so the Guardian has covered the Mount Polley mine disaster in British Columbia (though not much followup) and the ravages of Canadian mining companies in Central America and Eritrea. 


You don't get much coverage of these in mainstream Canadian media, which is corporate-allied of course; Guardian articles on the same issues are generally better-covered.......which is why I wish they'd do a Canadian edition, as our own media are all bootlickers and pander to the corporate line. But even THEY cover protests against western companies, though usually trying to make the protestors look bad. 


Is the Guardian Environment finally opening up to the possibility that not everything from PR China is manna from the Green Heaven? 


China respects nothing. They polluted much of their farmland and 40% of their water. Dead pigs come floating down China's rivers. Thousands upon thousands of fish died as, there was amonia in the rivers. 


PM Harper sold Canada to China with his FIPPA deal. This means China will take Canada over for, a minimum of 31 years. PM Harper's Omnibus Bill means China is permitted to sue Canada if, anyone tries to block Communist China's takeover. Harper has said, Canadian tax payers will pay for China's lawsuits. 45,000 more Chinese were suing to get into BC. We all know we will never get China out of Canada. China can't even feed themselves and Canada will likely be, a polluted wasteland as China is. 

我们的首相哈珀通过他的FIPPA协定把加拿大卖给了中国,这就意味着中国将要统治加拿大至少31年。他的综合法案允许中国可以起诉任何发对中共统治不满的加拿大人。哈珀说加拿大纳税人还要付给中国诉讼费。4万5千多中国人申请进入BC(卑诗省可能是前文的British Columbia)我们清楚我们永远不能把他们赶走。中国甚至不能养活自己,加拿大最后要变成中国那样成为污染的废土。 

China has another project in the Alberta tar sands. Petro-China has put in a bid, to build the Enbridge pipeline into BC. However, the battle rages and the gall of it all, the people of BC don't even get the jobs. China takes those too. There has just been another series of pipeline bursts. Does that stop the greed? Not on your nelly. 

中国在阿尔博塔油砂地还有一个项目,中石油已经投标要修建通向卑诗省的Enbridge 石油管道。尽管当地人勇敢的进行了激烈的反对,最后却落得丢了工作的下场。中国人把工作都抢走了。在那里还出现了管道爆裂,但是能阻止这些贪心的人么?别傻了。

Again you seem very confused. Here you are on the China page deluding yourself China gets a positive press in the Guardian. Its constant rotten cherry picking (and lazily) off the China press to paint the place as rotten. You very rarely see a positive story selected from the same sources at all. Do continue with your pro China Guardian fantasy. 

你好像又被忽悠了,你现在看的是中国版面,这才让你感觉卫报发表了有关中国的积极言论,这只是从中国新闻里摘出来的烂樱桃用来粉饰这个烂地方。你从同一地方根本看不到任何积极的一面。 继续做你的卫报会偏袒中国的白日梦吧

As well as China has marked its presence in Africa,Latin America is at prey to Chinese,because Latin Americans,with possible exceptions for Chile,Argentina and Uruguay,suffer the same difficulties in giving liberty to its entrepreneurs to create and to expand themselves. 


Don't forget dams. China has a love affair with dams, financing them not just around South America, but in Asia and Africa, too. Dams cause enormous damage to the environment, much of it unknowable until they do the damage. Look at the Pacific Northwest of the USA, with beautiful rivers turned into industrial tools. Breeding salmon in farms, just like nature intended. 


Some dams cam at too great a cost, but you think wind farms are ugly, dams unnatural, photovoltaic cost-effective, same with biofuel that's better used to feed people than cars.

How the hell do you want to power the world when oil runs out? Are you so enamoured with natural romanticism you want to revert to the stone ages?


By reducing demand for power. By eliminating the private car, a symbol of inequality and an environmental disaster no matter the propulsion system.

Most westerners use much more power than they should or need to use. No modern house should need a furnace or air conditioning system, but 99.9% of them have such primitive systems, because building technology, unlike almost all other technology, has not changed much since the 19th century.

I live high in the mountains at over 8500 feet, or about 2600 meters. Yet I rarely have to turn heat on in my house, because of good siting with regards to the sun and good construction. With slightly better construction, I never would have to heat the house.

The same holds true for large buildings, which use massive heating and cooling systems, which good design would eliminate.

We waste over 90% of the energy we use.






All of this talk and complain about enviromental is stupid. Industrialisation always bad for environment, but not doing it then u don't get any works and money. Just set rules and environment standard law.


Your comment demonstrates a failure to appreciate that without a healthy ecosystem life on Earth- including human- dies. Among the consequences of taking down a few hundred species each day, and a mushrooming human population that swells by 80 million every year; at some point, we are the species we take into the abyss. The vanishing point draws nearer every day. Our response: More toys. Burn all fossil fuels. Clear-cut the rain forests. Strip-mine the soil. Pollute the water. Foul the air. Go shopping. And, most importantly, figure out how we can make a few more bucks as the world burns.


What is it with NED / CIA type tactics that can so undermine sympathy? Colour revolutions, umbrella revolutions. As soon as these silly symbols appear you can just switch off. Oh look, they've got umbrellas. The CCP must be shaking at the knees.

I doubt very much in that country (the photo) the NED is involved, but referencing the NED tutored idea of a silly anti China symbol against an extremely restrained by US standards police response is just daft. I know, you don't need to say it, its just me.




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["title"]=> string(66) "环球时报:香港极端反对派亟需搞清自己“是谁”" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(273) "香港极端反对派给全国社会做了很低劣的“民主”示范,“港式民主”意味着政治对抗、社会动荡、人群撕裂以及经济发展被搅乱等等,包括一些稀奇古怪的现象会伴随出笼,这就是它给内地很多人的印象。" ["time"]=> int(1451010301) } [5]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297321) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(66) "李云飞阿訇:伊斯兰文明从制度上败给了西方文明" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(192) "阿拉伯字母仍是仅次于拉丁字母的世界上使用最广泛的文字系统,伊斯兰文明也是当今人类社会唯一有可能把西方文明取而代之的世界文化体系。" ["time"]=> int(1451009766) } [6]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297292) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(81) "罗思义:中国在毛泽东治下取得了世界史上最伟大的社会成就" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(210) "我们此前已经比较分析了中国1978年改革开放前后的经济增长情况。尽管如此,如果不了解1949年至1978年改革之前所取得巨大的社会成就,我们仍可能会被误导。" ["time"]=> int(1451003943) } [7]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297318) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(33) "香港特首进京也“跑部”" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(179) "按照惯例,香港和澳门的特首每年在12月底时都会来北京向国家领导人汇报全年工作,也就是所谓的“述职”,再通俗点就是年终总结。" ["time"]=> int(1451008771) } [8]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297303) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(42) "虎牙妹:《万万没想到》有点渣" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(228) "由于《万万》在网络剧时期累积了不小的人气,电影在点映时取得了相当大的成功,正当人们以为它能取得票房佳绩的时候,《万万》的风评却急转直下,在豆瓣上评分6.1。" ["time"]=> int(1451005740) } [9]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297295) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(72) "马平:作为前工程师,我认为深圳滑坡事故是这么回事" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(183) "一般来说,规划和建设部门会分别对建设区附近的地质条件进行勘探,分析地质灾害的可能性。对于可能出现滑坡的地段,应该进行治理。" ["time"]=> int(1451004167) } [10]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297290) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(45) "寒竹:中国历史中的社会主义根基" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(213) "在经济领域进一步深化市场化导向的改革,是当下中国发展的一个重要方向。市场能够最大限度地实现资源的有效配置,从而给经济发展提供强大而持续的动力。" ["time"]=> int(1451003764) } [11]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297248) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(69) "自导自演的和平演变:越南反共总理政治炒作的背后" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(303) "越南中央级的党报党刊、军报军刊最近发表大量文章,阐述党的路线和大政方针,同时揭露、批判“国内外各种敌对势力和政治机会主义分子”在十二大前的各种破坏阴谋和伎俩,强调要防范和反对“和平演变”和“颜色革命”。" ["time"]=> int(1450949950) } [12]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297247) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(42) "津巴布韦缘何“相中”人民币?" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(140) "中国是津巴布韦的第二大贸易合作伙伴,每年双边贸易额超过10亿元,津巴布韦对人民币的需求日趋强烈。" ["time"]=> int(1450948518) } [13]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297246) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(33) "台湾选举提前结束了吗?" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(108) "本来选战就是中间选民的争夺战,这一次,国民党要找回自己的基本盘,怎么了?" ["time"]=> int(1450946760) } [14]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297058) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(90) "清华博士:台湾是“杀出来的奴才,打出来的顺民,惯出来的孽种”" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(297) "一直以来,中国政府奉行对台让利政策,对台湾的开放程度远远超过台湾对大陆的开放程度,就已在太阳花运动中被否定的“贸服协定”为例,对大陆的要求几乎全部是高于WTO中的规定,而对台湾却几乎全部是低于WTO的规定。" ["time"]=> int(1450833467) } [15]=> array(11) { ["contentid"]=> int(1297067) ["icon"]=> string(0) "" ["iconsrc"]=> string(0) "" ["title"]=> string(60) "金庸:揭中国人不擅长打仗为何却能赢的真相" ["color"]=> string(0) "" ["url"]=> string(46) "" ["subtitle"]=> string(0) "" ["suburl"]=> string(0) "" ["thumb"]=> string(47) "" ["description"]=> string(243) "现在许多西方学者都认为,地球就这样大了,无止境地追求、扩充,是不可能的,也是不可取的。今後只能接受中国的哲学,要平衡、要和谐,民族与民族之间要相互协作,避免战争。" ["time"]=> int(1450834575) } }


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